By Mindy McAdams
University of Florida

> Online Journalism
> Online Media Types
> Writing for the Web
> Scholarship
An ongoing compilation of texts that deal with the idea of interactivity from a communications perspective. For the most part I have omitted texts that focus on interactive narrative, an interesting but narrower topic (the intersection with literary studies can take the discourse far afield from media studies).
Archer, M. S. 2000 Being Human: The Problem of Agency. Cambridge University Press.
* This book is not about technology at all, but I find the concept of agency crucial to any examination of interactivity.
Boczkowski, P. J. 2004 Digitizing the News: Innovation in Online Newspapers. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
* Read pp. 141-169.
Bucy, E. P. 2004 Interactivity in society: Locating an elusive concept The Information Society, 20(5), 373-383
Bucy, E. P. 2004 The interactivity paradox: closer to the news but confused In E. P. Bucy and J. E. Newhagen (Eds.), Media Access: Social and Psychological Dimensions of New Technology (pp. 47-72). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Cover, R. 2006 Audience inter/active: Interactive media, narrative control and reconceiving audience history New Media & Society, 8(1), 139-158
Crawford, Chris 2003 Interactive storytelling
* The first four pages are essential. The rest is about the Erasmatron.
In M.J.P. Wolf & B. Perron (Eds.), The Video Game Theory Reader (pp. 259-273). New York: Routledge.
Downes, E. J., & McMillan, S. J. 2000 Defining interactivity: a qualitative identification of key dimensions New Media & Society, 2(2), 157-179
Ha, L., & James, L.
1998 Interactivity re-examined: a baseline analysis of early business Web sites Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 42(4), 457-474
Hall, S. 1980 Encoding/decoding
* Not about computers, but quite definitely about interaction.
In S. Hall, D. Hobson, A. Lowe & P. Willis (Eds.), Culture, Media, Language (pp. 128-138). London: Hutchinson.
Hallnäs, L., & Redström, J.
2002 From use to presence: on the expressions and aesthetics of everyday computational things
* While Steuer (see below) treats telepresence, this article is more relevant to the ubiquity of small mobile devices.
ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 9(2), 106-124
Heeter, C.
1989 Implications of interactivity for communication research
* Do not fail to read this. In spite of its age, it is still great.
In J. L. Salvaggio and J. Bryant (Eds.), Media Use in the Information Age: Emerging Patterns of Adoption and Consumer Use (pp. 217-235). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Heeter, C. 2000

Interactivity in the context of designed experiences

Journal of Interactive Advertising, 1(1). Retrieved November 1, 2003, from
Hewett, T., Baecker, R., Card, S., Carey, T., Gasen, J., Mantei, M., Perlman, G., Strong, G., & Verplank, W.
1996 Human-Computer Interaction ACM SIGCHI Curricula for Human-Computer Interaction. Retrieved November 1, 2003, from cdg/cdg2.html#2_1
Huhtamo , E. 1998 From cybernation to interaction: a contribution to an archaelogy of interactivity In P. Lunenfeld (Ed.), The Digital Dialectic: New Essays on New Media (pp. 96-110). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Jensen, J. F.
1998 Interactivity: tracking a new concept in media and communication studies Nordicom Review, 19(1), 185-204. Retrieved November 1, 2003, from http:// reviewcontents/ ncomreview/ ncomreview198/ jensen.pdf
* A newer version appears in P. A. Mayer (Ed.), Computer Media and Communication: A Reader (pp. 160187). Oxford University Press.
Kenney, K., Gorelik, A., & Mwangi, S. 2000 Interactive features of online newspapers First Monday, 5(1). Retrieved November 1, 2003, from http:// issues/ issue5_1/ kenney/index.html
Kiousis, S.
2002 Interactivity: a concept explication New Media & Society, 4(3), 255-283
Laurel, B.
1993 Computers as Theatre. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.  
Liu, Y., & Shrum, L. J.
2002 What is interactivity and is it always such a good thing? Implications of definition, person, and situation for the influence of interactivity on advertising effectiveness Journal of Advertising, 31(4), 53-64
Lombard, M., & Ditton, T.
1997 At the heart of it all: the concept of presence Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 3(2). Retrieved July 9, 2006, from http:// vol3/issue2/ lombard.html
Massey, B. L., & Levy, M. R. 1999 Interactivity, online journalism, and English-language Web newspapers in Asia Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 76(1), 138-151
McMillan, S. J.
2002 Exploring models of interactivity from multiple research traditions: users, documents, and systems In L. Lievrouw and S. Livingston (Eds.), The Handbook of New Media (pp. 162-182). London: Sage.
McMillan, S. J. 2002 A four-part model of cyber-interactivity: some cyber-places are more interactive than others New Media & Society, 4(2), 271-291
McMillan, S. J., & Hwang, J. S.
2002 Measures of perceived interactivity: an exploration of the role of direction of communication, user control, and time in shaping perceptions of interactivity Journal of Advertising, 31(3), 41-54
Meadows, M. S. 2003

Pause & Effect: The Art of Interactive Narrative. Indianapolis: New Riders.
* Read pp. 44-47.

Murray, J. H.
1997 Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace. New York: Free Press.
Newhagen, J. E. 2004 Interactivity, dynamic symbol processing, and the emergence of content in human communication The Information Society, 20(5), 395-400
Oblak, T. 2005 The lack of interactivity and hypertextuality in online media Gazette: The International Journal for Communication Studies, 67(1), 87–106
Rafaeli, S.
1988 Interactivity: from new media to communication In R. P. Hawkins, J. M. Wiemann, and S. Pingree (Eds.), Advancing Communication Science: Merging Mass and Interpersonal Processes (pp. 110-134). Sage Annual Review of Communication Research, Vol. 16. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Rafaeli, S.
1990 Interacting with media: para-social interaction and real interaction In B. D. Ruben and L. A. Lievrouw (Eds.), Mediation, Information, and Communication: Information and Behavior (pp. 125-181). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
Rafaeli, S., & Sudweeks, F.
1997 Networked interactivity
* Still a great article, but decidedly focused on CMC, and not on HCI.
Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 2(4). Retrieved November 11, 2005, from http:// vol2/issue4/ rafaeli.sudweeks.html
Raskin, J. 2000 The Humane Interface: New Directions for Designing Interactive Systems. Boston: ACM Press/Addison-Wesley.
* Okay, this is really HCI and not media studies at all. But it is SUCH a good book! If you want to understand what interface designers think about, read this.
Reeves, B., and Nass, C.
1996 The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers, Television, and New Media Like Real People and Places. Cambridge University Press.
Schultz, T.
1999 Interactive options in online journalism: a content analysis of 100 U.S. newspapers Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 5(1). Retrieved November 10, 2005, from: http:// vol5/issue1/ schultz.html
Schultz, T.
2000 Mass media and the concept of interactivity: an exploratory study of online forums and reader e-mail Media, Culture & Society, 22(2), 205-221
Sohn, D., & Lee, B. 2005 Dimensions of interactivity: Differential effects of social and psychological factors Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 10(3). Retrieved November 10, 2005, from: http:// vol10/issue3/ sohn.html
Steuer, J.
1995 Defining virtual reality: dimensions determining telepresence In F. Biocca & M. R. Levy (Eds.), Communication in the Age of Virtual Reality (pp. 33-56). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
* Originally in Journal of Communication, 42(4), 73-93.
Stromer-Galley, J. 2004 Interactivity-as-product and interactivity-as-process The Information Society, 20(5), 391-394
Sundar, S. S. 2004 Theorizing interactivity's effects The Information Society, 20(5), 385-389
Sundar, S. S.; Kalyanaraman, S., & Brown, J. 2003

Explicating Web site interactivity: impression formation effects in political campaign sites

Communication Research, 30(1), 30–59
Tremayne, M. 2005 Lessons learned from experiments with interactivity on the Web
Quote: "When it comes to conceptualizations of interactivity, most researchers are choosing between the functional view of interactivity and the perceptual view and are designing their studies accordingly."
Journal of Interactive Advertising, 5(2). Retrieved July 9, 2006, from: http:// vol5/no2/ tremayne/
Tremayne, M., & Dunwoody, S. 2001

Interactivity, information processing, and learning on the World Wide Web

Science Communication, 23(2), 111–134
Wu, G. 2005 The mediating role of perceived interactivity in the effect of actual interactivity on attitude toward the Website Journal of Interactive Advertising, 5(2) . Retrieved September 17, 2005, from: vol5/no2/wu/
Publication date: 25 Sept 2004 | Updated 19 Nov 2006